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Speak Up, Alabama Contest Day Rules

Do you want to stand up for what you believe? Do you want to be able to inspire or educate people on important issues? Well, the two Speak Up, Alabama
events are the 4-H events for you! Speak Up, Alabama helps build your leadership, citizenship, and communications skills. 4-H public speaking events have
had a powerful effect on many of Alabama’s civic and business leaders—lawyers, corporate presidents, religious leaders, political leaders, and Extension staff.

If this sounds like something that you might be interested in, please click the following link for the Competitive Events Rules: Speak Up, Alabama Competitive Events Rules

Alabama Master Gardener Program

Please click Master Gardener Application in order to download an application. You may mail in or drop off the application to Extension Office at 132 North Court Street, Talladega, AL 35014. An application can be picked up at the Extension Office between the hours of 8:00 am and 4:30 pm.

 

Pasture Management in the Winter-Spring Transition

The time surrounding spring green-up offers livestock producers an excellent opportunity to manage their pastures for success through the spring and summer months.

To maximize forage production through the summer, producers should take this time to establish and begin implementing a plan to:

1)     Evaluate Pastures for Drought Related Damage

2)     Begin Pasture Renovation if Needed

3)     Control Pasture Weeds

4)     Establish Proper Soil Fertility

5)     Set Up Grazing Systems to Reach Success

Let’s talk first about drought related matters…Did you know that sections of Alabama still remain in extreme drought? Furthermore, the northern counties of East Central Alabama are still in a severe drought as of 02/27/2017. To look up the drought status of your county, click here to go to the Alabama Drought Monitor.

Pasture Evaluation and Renovation:

As we enter the spring green up in drought recovery years, pasture assessment can help producers evaluate the impact of the drought on their summer perennial pastures. NRCS has an excellent system for examining pastures, and their Guide to Pasture Condition Scoring can be viewed here. In brief, once summer perennials emerge, you will want to determine what species are present (is this the type of forage you desire, or have weeds taken over?) and how well the forages cover your pasture (what percentage of the ground is covered by plants and what percentage is left bare?), plus other important factors.

If pastures grade poorly, with low amounts of desired summer grasses emerging after green up, you may need to consider pasture renovation. Here is a quick guideline to use when determining the amount of renovation you may need:

  1. If you get a 70% or greater stand of your summer perennial pasture grasses, your pasture is well on its way to recovering without much help. It should recover quickly with proper grazing strategies, weed control, and desired soil fertility. You will want to take care of this pasture as it emerges. Do not allow animals to graze too early, but you should expect good recovery under correct management.
  2. If a 40-70% stand emerges, pastures should still fully recover with weed control, proper fertility, grazing management, and perhaps a bit more patience. Though forage emergence is lower in stands of 40-70%, there are still adequate tillers underground. Between tillers and seed production, pastures should recover by fall. If these pastures are still thin in the fall, overseeding for winter annuals and/or legumes may prove helpful to keep soil covered and provide grazing through winter.
  3. In pastures with a stand <40%, much patience and effort will be needed for pasture recovery. Proper soil fertility and weed control are still important, but you may also need to re-establish desired forages in such pastures or consider utilizing a summer annual in some scenarios. You may also want to utilize winter annuals and legumes until the pasture has recovered. Click here to see the suggested planting dates for Alabama forages, and be wise if you decide to work towards re-establishing lost stands. Remember that newly planted grass will need adequate moisture and proper care to survive. It may not be a good idea to plant new perennial stands immediately if we remain in drought conditions.

Weed Control:

Weed control is a necessary part of pasture recovery. Weeds will compete with desired forage species for soil nutrients and sunlight. If pastures became bare during the drought, weeds were given an ideal scenario for growth. After this, weeds can smother out our already weakened stands of summer grasses as they attempt to emerge post-winter. There are two types of weed control you can do now:

  1. Winter Weed Control: Winter broadleaf weeds may not seem like much of an issue right now. But as we continue into spring, their presence and growth will overshadow desired summer forages as they attempt to emerge. Furthermore, such weeds are stealing valuable nutrients from the soil. Winter broadleaf weeds can be controlled now in most pastures with the usage of products like Sharpen, 2,4-D, Grazon, and Weedmaster. Make sure to read labels for guidelines, and only use herbicides on pastures when and where such products are labeled for use. If you have questions, contact a member of the Animal Science and Forages team and look up weed control options here.
  2. Summer Weed Control: You can treat summer perennial pastures before emergence with pre-emergent herbicide (Prowl H20). Before spraying pre-emergent, it is important to evaluate pasture emergence. Spraying after summer forages have begun to emerge may set desirable plants back. If you use Prowl H20, it is valuable to know that a supplemental label has been released that will allow you to use Prowl on certain pastures post-emergence, in the growing season, after cutting. See supplemental label here.

Soil Fertility:

Proper soil fertility and pH are necessary for optimum production in all years. However, proper soil conditions following drought are essential for pasture recovery. Take a soil test in all pastures today and correct soil deficiencies to allow pastures the opportunity to succeed. Click here for a more in depth discussion of soil testing.

Proper Grazing Strategies:

As summer forages emerge, it is important to correctly manage and graze recovering pastures. Remind yourself that the green leaves of grass are essential for the plant’s overall health and sustainability. Grass leaves catch sunlight that the plant uses to make energy (plant food). If we graze pastures too low, we greatly reduce the amount of leaf available to catch sunlight. This reduces the ability of the plant to make energy, and leads to slower pasture growth and recovery. Now is the time to set up a grazing system to allow you to rotate animals through pastures. Rotational grazing will allow your animals to better utilize the forage available in each pasture, and will increase forage growth since you keep animals from eating specific areas down too low. Healthier pastures will produce more forage, more quickly-allowing your animals better nutrition.

Now is the time to create and begin implementing a plan to allow your pastures to fully recover from drought! Be proactive by taking the steps above to ensure your success.

Sarah Dickinson, M.S.

Alabama Cooperative Extension System

Regional Extension Agent I – Animal Science & Forages

Ph.D. Student – Reproductive Physiology/Molecular Biology

Cell: 256-537-0024

Office: 256-825-1050

Email:sed0029@auburn.edu

Serving Chambers, Clay, Cleburne, Coosa, Lee, Randolph, Shelby, Talladega, and Tallapoosa Counties

Drought Strategies and Available Assistance to Livestock Farmers

cattle

Counties in North Eastern Alabama have been dry throughout the summer of 2016. As property owners, commodity farmers, and livestock producers hope for rain, various management strategies and assistance programs may be considered. Livestock producers should use management strategies to stretch available hay and grazing. Hay availability has been of great concern to livestock producers this summer. Because of the lack of rainfall and bouts with armyworms, hay production has been decreased. Furthermore, loss of grazing has increased summer hay demand, with many producers feeding hay at least sometimes this past summer. To better stretch your resources, consider grouping animals to feed hay and supplement appropriately for their varying nutritional needs. For example, cows in peak lactation will consume 2.5-3% of their body weight and require around 60% total digestible nutrients (TDN; e.g. energy) and 12% crude protein (CP), whereas dry, pregnant cows may only need to consume 2% of their bodyweight at 48% TDN and 7% CP. Test your hay for nutrient density, group livestock according to intake requirements, and supplement hay with feeds as needed. You can limit feed hay and meet the remainder of your cows’ nutrient needs by providing supplementation through stored feeds. Contact your county extension office or regional extension agent for help determining hay requirements and proper supplementation for your animals.

While summer perennial grazing will begin to wind down as we move toward the winter season, considerations for winter grazing may be beneficial-especially if we receive some fall rainfall. Planting winter annuals on prepared land or overseeding onto short grazed summer sods can provide grazing in the late fall and winter season. Small grains (oats, wheat, rye), ryegrass, and clovers are excellent species to consider planting alone or as a mixture for winter grazing. Follow this link to view guidelines for planting various forages in Alabama. If you have the ability to stockpile tall fescue into the late fall months, this is another strategy that may help provide grazing if we receive moisture soon.

Animals that are not productive should be sold to reduce the number of animals that will consume your limited resources. Pregnancy check animals at weaning or at the end of your breeding season to identify and cull open animals. Also identify and cull low performing animals and animals with bad eyes, feet, udders, and dispositions. These animals will only consume resources needed by your quality stock, and the income from their sales can increase funds available for purchasing hay or stored feeds.

The USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) provides assistance to grazing livestock producers that have lost grazing abilities due to droughty weather. Talladega county is currently listed amongst counties eligible for assistance. If you graze livestock in Talladega county and wish to apply for or learn more about financial assistance for your operation, follow this link to information about the Livestock and Forage Disaster Relief Program or contact your county’s FSA office at 256-362-8210.

If you have questions regarding drought management strategies, contact myself or other members of the ACES Animal Science and Forages Team.

Sarah Dickinson, M.S.

Regional Extension Agent I

Animal Science & Forages

Alabama Cooperative Extension System

Cell: 256-537-0024

Office: 2560-825-1050

Email:sed0029@auburn.edu

Serving Chambers, Clay, Cleburne, Coosa, Lee, Randolph, Shelby, Talladega, and Tallapoosa Counties

Weed Control in Pasture Systems

pasture banner

Original article published in extension daily. Author: Katie Nichols

It’s no secret that the summers in Alabama are hot and dry. This year is no exception. Yards and pastures are suffering from heat stress.

An Alabama Extension Crop Specialist has recommendations for farmers struggling with weed suppression in pasture systems.

Weed Control in a Drought

Dr. Steve Li said weed control during a drought is typically very difficult.

“Under drought conditions, all plants slow down growth,” he said. “Plants will develop a thick cuticle and metabolism slows down. They will also try to close the stomata during the day to conserve water. After the stomata is closed, there is very little carbon dioxide in the plant and the photosynthetic rate drops significantly.”

Many herbicides target the photosynthetic process, so with a slowed rate of photosynthesis herbicides may not work as well.

Li said in a drought situation, producers should think twice before going to the sprayer.

“Weeds seem to grow in a quick flush after a rain,” Li said. “Instead of wasting a herbicide application on dry weeds, wait until after a rain to apply. You will most likely have healthier weeds to spray.”

It is important to use surfactant and ammonium sulfate during herbicide application. This will assist plant uptake of the herbicide. Consult the herbicide label for manufacturer requirements.

Whether there is rain or no rain, Li said one option for weed control is to mow the pasture. The weeds are still sensitive to leaf blade in any condition. Another option is to utilize irrigation in the pasture and hay field if it is available to you. A quick shower from the irrigation system would have a noticeable impact on plant uptake of herbicides.

When to Spray Perennial Weeds

Most farmers are familiar with perennial weeds causing issues on the farm. Blackberry and dewberry, ironweed, kudzu, passionflower, Chinese privet, Japanese honeysuckle, Cherokee rose, trifoliate orange and unwanted woody brush are good examples of perennial weeds that cause issues in pasture systems.

The most effective time to spray perennial weeds is in late summer and early fall. Later in the season perennial weeds will begin getting into the reproduction stage.

“Typically, plants are more sensitive to stress and herbicides in the reproductive stage as compared to earlier in the season when they are in the vegetative growth stage,” Li said.

Perennial plants will be making photosynthetic products later in the season and move them into reproductive organs. Spraying herbicide at this point in the year allows the herbicides to translocate into the storage organs of the plant along with the carbohydrates, amino acids and other photosynthetic products, giving the herbicide a better chance of killing the plant and prevent regrowth in future.

“In many cases, the storage organs are also reproductive organs,” he said. “If you don’t kill the storage organs, you do not kill the weed. Kudzu root is a classic example. This is one of the major challenges of perennial weed control. Preventing regrowth and continuous control effort are always required for successful perennial weed control.”

Other Considerations Herbicide Applications

Herbicide applications must be timely and carefully calculated. Spray drift is a factor that could cause lots of problems for sensitive row crops like soybean, cotton and vegetables. When spraying drift is a concern, always use large droplets, lower pressure (around 40 PSI), low driving speed (below 10 mph) and low boom height (18-20 inches above canopy) with a boom-type sprayer. Spray only when the wind speed is less than 10 mph and blowing away from the sensitive crop.

It is important to ensure good coverage. When spraying perennial weeds—especially brush-type weeds—the stand can be very thick, so increasing the sprayer output may help push the spray droplets through the dense canopy. If the weed stand is too thick, mowing may be required before applying herbicides.

“Repeated applications for perennial weed control is the key,” Li said. “You may start with 100 weed plants in one field, and after three years you may only have five plants left. If you do not do something to those five plants and turn them loose, they will grow back and multiply quickly.”

It is a constant battle to suppress the weed population. Weed eradication is difficult, but continuously controlling the population is better than the alternative of letting it run rampant in pastures and hay fields. Growing forage or hay and preventing overgrazing are also critical to weed control. Thin forage or hay, large bare ground and overgrazing always lead to future weed problem if there is a lack of weed-crop competition.

More Information

For more information, visit www.aces.edu and look for the Forage team webpage. More information on herbicide applications in row crops can be found here. You can also listen to the Forage Focus webinar in its entirety here.

Overseeding Winter Annuals to Increase the Grazing Season

Agricultural field on which grow the young grass. wheat

Overseeding winter annuals onto dormant summer perennial pastureland is a powerful tool used by producers who desire to extend the number of months spend grazing their livestock. To overseed winter annuals, producers simply broadcast or drill seed into the desired area once summer perennial growth has ended. Correct overseeding practices lead to the availability of winter annuals from late fall through the spring, depending on the forage species/combination of species planted. Common forages utilized in winter grazing systems from overseeding are small grains (oats, wheat, rye), ryegrass, and clovers. These species can be used in combination with each other to increase length of forage availability or to take advantage of the nitrogen fixing attributes of clovers. Overseeding is a fairly simple technique that leads to high benefits, however incorrect procedures for overseeding can lead to failure of winter annual establishment. Let’s review the benefits and practices recommended for successful overseeding:

Benefits of Overseeding:

Overseeding allows producers to lessen the amount of stored feeds necessary for production through the winter. The increased forage availability from winter annuals allow producers to more economically feed their livestock.

If winter annuals are broadcasted onto or drilled into sods (versus planted in prepared plots), pasture land is better able to uphold its integrity when animals graze after wet conditions or in areas that tend to hold water in the winter months.

Winter annuals are high quality forage and provide excellent nutrition to livestock throughout their growing season.

If a legume (such as clover) is used in the winter annual combination, nitrogen availability in the soil is increased. Legumes naturally fix nitrogen and thus increase nitrogen amounts available to companion plants growing with the clover and to plants growing after the clover’s growth ceases.

Techniques for Overseeding:

Overseed winter annuals onto pastureland in good condition for plant growth. Pastures should be well-drained and not subject to flooding on wet winter days. A soil test should be taken, and lime should be properly applied several months before overseeding. Potassium and Phosphorus should be applied while overseeding as directed by your soil test, and Nitrogen should be applied after winter annuals are up to minimize uptake and continued growth from summer forages.  High quality seeds should be used, and legume seeds should be inoculated just before planting.

Pastures should be grazed down closely or clipped/forage removed prior to overseeding. Burning pastures is a less desirable option, due to inconsistency of burn, but is better than overseeding onto a sod with high levels of vegetation.

Disking of seeds into the sod is not a requirement for overseeding certain species in optimal pasture conditions. However, every pasture is different and should be evaluated prior to overseeding to determine if and how much disking is required. Factors that should be evaluated are desired date of planting (disking allows for earlier planting), soil type, species to be overseeded, and forage remaining on sod. If existing forage is not grazed or clipped down, tillage to disrupt current vegetation is necessary. One or two rounds of light disking can be beneficial to overseeding programs, and it is important to note that disking does not damage summer perennial return in subsequent years.

When to Plant:

Winter annuals should be overseeded later than if they were planted on prepared land. Since remaining summer perennials are still intact on many pastures used for overseeding, it is important to overseed after summer plants stop their growth. If overseeding is done too early, summer grasses that continue to grow will overwhelm and outcompete your winter annuals. In central Alabama, it is recommended to overseed winter annuals from October 15-October 30. If earlier planting on sod is desired, summer sod should be very thoroughly disked such that it is destroyed or weakened. In Bermudagrass fields, paraquat may be sprayed on summer pastures to provide an “early frost affect.” In both cases, overseeding can be done 2-3 weeks earlier than in standard conditions.

It is also important to overseed winter annuals by the October 30 cutoff date in central Alabama to allow for the young plants to germinate and be well established before the blunt of winter sets in. Increased survivability during winter frosts are noted in healthy, well established stands. In addition, if small grains are to be planted for utilization in late fall/early winter, adequate time is necessary post planting to allow for grazing availability.

Once winter annuals are ready for grazing, stock areas appropriately such that large, dense areas of winter annuals are not left on pastures. This could reduce summer forage emergence.

Click here to view a document with more facts on overseeding.

If you have questions regarding overseeding techniques or other fall planting guidelines, contact myself or other members of the ACES Animal Science and Forages Team.

Sarah Dickinson, M.S.

Regional Extension Agent I

Animal Science & Forages

Alabama Cooperative Extension System

Cell: 256-537-0024

Office: 2560-825-1050

Email:sed0029@auburn.edu

Serving Chambers, Clay, Cleburne, Coosa, Lee, Randolph, Shelby, Talladega, and Tallapoosa Counties